of the
Order of Centurions

"thou shalt provide out of all the people able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them, to be rulers of thousands, and rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens"


Effective 270001AOCT12

Whenever and wherever members of the Order of Centurions gather and worship, the Chapel of the Centurions meets.

Constantine pitched a mobile Christian Chapel in the field as part of his headquarters on all of his campaigns after becoming Caesar.

The Order is an independent "non denominational liturgical Religious Order." It is a religious society formed for religious, educational, and charitable purposes. Legio Christi, the "Christian Legion" is the headquarters. The order is organized in accordance with Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code by the Articles of Association and will remain in compliance with that code and the statutes of the Commonwealth of Kentucky regulating religious societies. Any and all contributions to the Order of the Centurions will be used to promote the objects and purpose of the order and its membership. The Legion will charter local cohorts, develop worship forms, collect and publish historical research documents pertinent to the Order, foster fellowship, and do any and all functions normally required to administer the Order. More information on the organization is contained in the following paragraph that discusses offices, functions, and responsibilities.
Updated October 21 MMXII

In the Roman Army, the Legion would be made up of 10 Cohorts of six Centuries each, or 60 centuries, each commanded by a Centurion. Some centuries were actually Maniples and had 160 legionaries. The actual commander of the Legion was the Legate. Subordinates to the Legate were the Tribunes. One was the Tribune Milites or Tribunus Laticlavius (broad-stripe tunic). He was the Senior Tribune and was a career soldier; he likely had prior experience as a centurion and may have served as a legionaire. There were five other Tribuni Angusticlaviis (narrow-strip tunic) who were normally appointed by the Senate for a single tour. The Praefectus Castrorum was a prior Centurion who had been advanced to the Legion Staff. He was responsible for training, equipping, and organizing the Legion and was third in command of the Legion. The senior Centurion was the Primus Pilus. He commanded the highest century of the First (Primus) Cohort, and thus had the lead for the entire Legion. This was known as the Millarian Cohort, and contained all of the headquarters personnel and functions. Immediately supporting him was his successor in battle, the Primus Princeps Prior, commander of the second-ranking century First Cohort.
Updated October 21 MMXII

Christ Militant

We acknowledge Jesus of Nazareth, the Risen Christ, as the head of the Legion, the head of the Church Militant.

Behold, I have given him for a ... leader and commander...[IS 55:4],
he is the Captain of Our Salvation [Heb 2:10]
, the Captain of the Host [Josh. 5:13]

The Order faithfully looks to the Words of Christ in the Gospel for our "Commander's Intent" in carrying out his last order when he said: All power is given unto me in heaven and in earth. Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.

Any centurion in Good Standing may serve in any administrative office unless otherwise indicated below. Good standing is defined as one who lives by the Rule of the Order, subscribes to the Creed in word and deed, has no felony conviction, has in no way renounced the Order or broken fellowship with it by a direct act, word, or deed, and is an upstanding person of high Christian moral Character (as may be defined in part, but not limited to Rom 1), has not promulgated any heresies departing from the Creed, and is of sufficiently good mental and physical health to permit his fulfilling an office of the Order. Furthermore, a centurion of Good Standing in office does not instigate or create conflict by promoting one denomination or doctrine over another but rather is inclined to promote fellowship under the concept of "Mere Christianity." Any Officer of the Order of Centurions under charges for a felony or high misdemeanor concerning moral turpitude may be suspended by the action of Primus Pilus. Any officer who has demonstrated in word or deed that his status is no longer in Good Standing, may be suspended by the Primus Pilus. Any centurion so suspended may request a tribunal composed of of the Primus and his voting council to review his written appeal.
created October 21 MMXII


The Fundator is the "founder" of the Order. There is only one centurion that holds, and may hold this title: Mark S. Carroll, who founded the Order of Centurions (c)- Ordo Centurionum (c) by personal act of creating it, creating an Internet domain (www.orderofcenturions) and publishing it on the on the world wide web on 29 September MMIII at Beattyville, Kentucky and registering the Order with the US Internal Revenue Service. Centurion Carroll is a citizen of the Commonwealth of Kentucky and was the single centurion signer of the Articles of Association drafted under the provisions of IRS Publication 557 Form for 503c Religious Societies, and Kentucky statutes, and which was notarized on 9 October MMIII at Jackson, Kentucky, and registered the Order with the US Internal Revenue Service. Centurion Carroll resides at the “Principium” (Founding Headquarters for the Order of Centurions (aka International Order of Centurions/Ordo Centruionum) in Beattyville. The Fundator is a permanent, standing, voting member of the Councilum Ordo Centurionum.
created October 21 MMXII


The Commissarium is the "Trustee" of the Order as defined by Kentucky Statue: There is one trustee of the Order of Centurions, Mark S. Carroll. There may be other commissari appointed by the Primus Pilus with the consent of the voting members of the Concilum Ordo Centurionum under procedures set forth by Kentucky statutes.
updated October 21 MMXII


Senior fighting Centurion of the Roman Legion. The title being interpreted as "First File" or "First Spear". Commanded the First Century of the First Cohort (Milari) of the Legion. This century was 160-man strong and held the Legion's Headquarters' staff. The Primus Pilus served on the General Staff and was in charge of the day-to-day affairs of running the Roman Legion.

In the Order of Centurions, the Primus Pilus also is in charge of the day-to-day operations of the Order. He speaks for the Order and speaks to the membership. He publishes information, spiritual guidance, recommends activities such as donations to other organizations, miscellaneous and routine expenditures of funds, fund raising activities, and goals and actions to be accomplished by the Order. His term is for life until he voluntarily retires or is no longer able to serve due to disability. He is appointed by his predecessor. He may retire from his office after serving for three years. Upon his retirement from the office, he shall be enrolled as a retired Primus Pilus with the title of PrimiPilus (or Primus Pilus) # Emeritus. When retired, he shall be admitted as a permanent, standing, voting member of the CONCILIUM ORDO CENTURIONUM until death or resignation from the council. If the Primus Pilus dies or becomes unable to perform his duties due to disability, and there is no Primus Princeps Prior to assume the duties, the command of the Order shall fall immediately to the senior Primipilus Emeritus until such a time as a new Primus Pilus may be appointed. The Primus Pilus is physically located at his headquarters wherever he may be and it is to be known as “Praetorium”
updated October 21 MMXII


Commanded the second ranking century of the First Cohort of the Roman Legion and was the second highest-ranking centurion. All centurions of the First Cohort were known as Primi Ordines.
In the Order of Centurions, the Primus Pilus may designate a centurion as Primus Princeps Prior as his successor. He will be in the chain of command in the event the Primus Pilus is killed or permanently incapacitated as the Pilus Primus. The Pilus Princeps Prior may advise the Primus Pilus primarily on the operation of the Order.
updated October 21 MMXII


PRAEFECTUS CASTRORUM The Camp Prefect - a very senior professional soldier of the Roman Legion. He had previous experience as a Centurion. He was the third in command of the Legion after the Legate and Tribunes. He oversaw organization, training, and equipping of the Legion. In the Order of Centurions this centurion exercises ecclesiastical oversight of LEGIO CHRISTI. The Praefectus advises the Primus Pilus primarily in matters spiritual and ecclesiastical.
Only male presbyters (including bishops), 40 years and older with valid ordinations may serve in the Office of Praefectus Castrorum.
The office of the Praefectus Castrorum will be appointed by the Primus Pilus. The office is for life unless otherwise specified or until his retirement. He shall be enrolled as a retired Praefectus Castrorum with the title of Praefectus Castrorum # Emeritus. He shall be admitted as a standing member of the CONCILIUM ORDO CENTURIONUM until death or resignation from the council. The location of Praefectus Castrorum is the “Castrorum”
Updated October 21 MMXII


PRINCEPS PRAETORII A centurion assigned to headquarters. The Primus may appoint Princeps Praetorii to perform special duties at his headquarters or with the International Headquarters “Principium”  

TRIBUNUS LATICLAVIUS Tribunus Laticlavius was second in command of the Roman Legion. In the Order of Centurions, he is a Senior Tribune (h.c.) and holds a senior military rank. He may advise the Primus Pilus in all areas of the Order.
February 7 MMIX

AQUILIFER The Aquilifer bore the Roman Legion's standard (aquila, literally eagle). He was of a similar rank to a Centurion. In the Order of Centurions this centurion may be designated for special duties and succession. The Aquilifer may advise the Primus Pilus, primarily in operational areas of the Order.
February 7 MMIX


DRACONARIUS COHORS MILLARI The Dragon ensign (standard bearer, dragon referring to the design on the standard) of the First Cohort (Roman Legion Headquarters & First Cohort) of the Legion. The Draconarius advises the Primus Pilus, primarily in operational areas of the Order.

CONCILIUM ORDO CENTURIONUM The Council of the Order of Centurions. Standing Members include current and retired Primus Pilus and Praefectus Castrorum and shall have voting rights whenever a vote is called. The Primus Pilus shall serve as the Councilum Leader. The Primus Pilus may also invite other registered centurions in good standing and appoint them as temporary council members with non-voting privileges. For any legal government and/or state administrative matters that require a voting majority by law or state regulation, the Council shall represent the Order at the call of the Primus and consider items presented by the Primus Pilus for up or down vote. On all other issues presented, the voice of the Council is advisory only. The routine dates for meetings, if any, shall be on the seasonal ember days four times a year. The annual financial report and state of the Order shall be presented for comment at the Autumn Ember Council. A quorum exists for voting when the Primus Pilus and one other member participate. Meetings will be by any electronic means.

updated October 21 MMXII

LABARI PRAESIDIO The Labarum Guard is the Service and Support Arm of the Order of Centurions. It was activated on 28 October MMV - the Feast of the Battle of Saxa Ruba. Centurions may apply and be appointed to this arm of the Order as Chisti Milites Larabi Praesidio on the eve of the Anniversary of Saxa Ruba, and may earn permanent rank within the Order of Centurions. All members of the Labarum Guard are are associated with the Legion Headquarters, Millari Cohors, and may also belong to other cohorts.

PRECATOR Intercessor - An additional role for any centurion to serve the Order as a Prayer Warrior/Intercessor. Prayer is the only organized "combat" in which we as an Order engage, and the enemy is Satan and his minions: "For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principlalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places" Members are associated with the international Cohors Pracatoris under the guidance of the Praefectus Castrorum Legio Christi, and may also belong to a other cohorts. [Eph vi.12.]
An spiritual role that each and every Roman soldier could and did fulfill, from the Emperor-like Saint Constantine I, to the recruit.

TRIBUNUS HONORIS CAUSA Honorary designation bestowed on veteran centurions by the Legion in recognition of service. Tribunes may act in an advisory capability for the Legio Christi on various matters.
The senior tribune was second in command, called Tribunus Laticlavius


CENTURION All individual adult members of the Order have the title "Centurion" and are of the Centuriate. If not a member of a local Cohort, they are members of the Order of Centurions "at large". The Centurion's symbol is the vine staff. Centurions hold this office for life. All Centurions are equal. Some may serve the Order in specific religious and administrative roles like Primus Pilus and Praefectus Castrorum, and some may be recognized with an honorary title based on their contributions to their state and the Church. Some may provide special services to the Order such as witnessing, welcoming, reenacting, etc. Regardless, all are "Brothers in Spiritual Arms" with a voice in the Order.
The centurion was a senior career soldier who earned his rank by virtue of merit. His sign of authority was a staff about three feet long made of a vine "vitis", often used to keep order in the Cohort through corporal punishment. He wore a dagger and a sword, on opposite sides from the other members of the Century. He might also have a silver spear and gold crown, which were awards for valor and service. He would wear his horsehair crest on his silvered helmet from side to side, opposite the men who wore the horsehair front to rear. The armor was silvered mail or scales rather than solid. Below the armor around the waist and at the arms they wore flaps of leather called pteruges that were fringed at the ends. The Centurion commanded a Century of 10 contubernium - 80 men. He often fought at the right front of his Century. A centurion could be commissioned directly, but normally served in most of the non-commissioned ranks before being commissioned.

LEGIONARY Cohorts may enlist minor members with the title of "Legionary". They become Centurions at age 18. If not a member of a local Cohort, they are members of the Order of Centurions "at large". There may be a formal reception for new centurions upon the Feast Day of the Order: 3 January, after they reach the age of 18.

In the Roman army, reforms of Gaius Gracchus in 2nd Century BC forbade the enlistment of youths under seventeen. Legionaries received the Military Mark before being recorded in the Legion's rolls. Legionaries were Roman citizens drafted for a period of six years. They could also enlist with a letter of recommendation. They could retire after about 20 - 30 years of service with a pension. Legionaries were organized in contubernium that contained eight men who lived together. Ten contubernium formed a Century. They could hold specialist positions and have a rating like a modern day Non Commissioned Officer - see below.

legionaries and even the camp followers

AUXILLIA Individuals who are not baptized but have taken the Vow are registered as Auxillia Centurions or Legionaries. Baptism was ordained by the Lord Jesus, and is a sign of regeneration, the forgiveness of sins, adoption as sons of God, and is a sacrament for full membership in the Church Militant. In ancient Rome Auxillia were not Roman citizens, but fought with the Roman Army and earned Roman citizenship.


COHORT A local chapter of the Order is called a "Cohort". It may use the title "Order of Centurions" and the Symbol in conjunction with the name of the Cohort when it has received a Charter from the Legion. As a Cohort Chapter it is associated with the Order of Centurions for full membership, spiritual, educational, social, and like areas. However, it is independent in its financial, business, property, and tax affairs from the Order of Centurions.

CALLING OF SERVANTS Centurions may call out Cohort members to serve, according to their gifts, in the work of the Church. Cohorts should consider the Scriptures in calling and appointing.
And when they had appointed (cheirotoneô - elected by stretching forth the hand) for them elders in every church, and had prayed with fasting, they commended them to the Lord, on whom they had believed [Ac 14:23]

PILUS PRIOR Title of the individual leading the local Cohort.
This title is recognized as a temporary one by the Order for the leader of the Local Cohort. Individuals may earn this title permanently through service to the Order in the Labarum Guard

OTHER OFFICERS The Cohort may appoint other centurions special staff functions within the cohort (e.g, Adjutant, Quartermaster, Operations and Training, Civil Affairs, Chaplain, etc.)

OPTIO Optio means "chosen men" (Optio Centurionis). An Optio was a chosen Legionary that assisted his Centurion. There was one Optio for each century, and he was second in command of the century. Cohorts may appoint Legionaries as Optios and give them special roles in the Cohort. The Optio's symbol is the spear-staff with a ball at the tip. Cohorts may wish to appoint Legionaries approaching their 18th birthday as Optio Ad Spem Ordinis. These were Optios who had been selected for the Centuriate and were awaiting a vacancy. Others of special rank who drew extra pay are shown below

DOMAINA Those who wish to associate with the order but are not candidates for the Order. There are Friends of the Order who associate with us and monitor our web site without taking the vow. In the time of the legions, domaina included families, civilian support, civilian officials, etc.


Vexillarius Legionary who carried the Cohort's banner showing its designation.

Imagnifer If this position were to be employed in a cohort, it would be acceptable for an Imagnifer to serve as an acolyte and to bear some item for the Order of Centurions, such as a the Gospel Book, censor, or torch in the Divine Liturgy. All of these were lessor orders in the ancient Church

Signifer A Signifer was responsible for signaling commands in the Century and carried a staff with emblems to do so.

Chorobates Engineers who would scout, form quartering parties, and do other pioneering and engineering work.

Tesserarius Sergeant of the Guard and in charge of fatigue details. Responsible to issue the challenge and password.

Coricine Bugler who sounded various calls in battle and in camp

Custos Armorum who would fashion and repair weapons and body armor

Medicus Medic

Libaraii Clerk

Architectus Master Builder

Mensor Surveyor who had a very important role in the Army to support mapping, construction, etc.

Hydraularius Water Engineer. Just as in the modern armies of today, the Roman army had a mission of civil engineering which included waterworks.

Ballistarius Catapult makers and operators. This was the artillery arm of the army and was critical in seige warfare like the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70.

Roman Velite Light infantry. Note that the soldier does not wear body armor. Often this role was fulfilled by auxillia.


Feast of the Order of Centurions Cohorts will normally meet at least annually on or about January 3, the traditional day when centurions renewed their vows, and formally receive new Centurions and Legionary. At this time they may have an Annual General Membership Meeting and Agape Meal (banquet) which may be open to all categories of the Order or limited to certain categories at the discretion of the Cohort.

Living History Members of Cohorts are encouraged to consider offering personifications of Centurions and other 1st century persons in their local community as a means of witnessing their faith and educating the community.

Other Titles The Order recognizes and may use legitimate national military rank according to national law and custom (e.g., US Federal Government). The Order does not recognize or use any ecclesiastical, academic, or societal ranks, titles, or salutations.
updated February 7 MMIX

The organization of the Order is similar to that of the Roman Army. This link discusses the Roman Army Organization in detail.

Meeting Agenda

Photo by John Wilkes, Scotland, Used with Permission.


Copyright - Order of Centurions - 2003-2012